Several stages of development influence how far the vehicle can take over the driver's responsibilities if required, as well as how people and vehicles interact today and in the future. Experts discuss the five stages of self-driving technology.
The categorization is done in stages, beginning with level 0 (the driver directs and operates the vehicle fully without the assistance of driver assistance systems) and progressing to level 5, where the vehicle travels without a driver, that is, autonomously.
While level 3 'highly automated driving,' level 4 'completely automated driving,' and level 5 'autonomous driving' still appear to be things of the future, level 1 driver assistance technologies are currently widely available and are standard in all BMW models. In addition, level 2 "partially automated driving" support technologies, such as the steering and trajectory assistant and the remote parking system, are currently available in some vehicles.
Level 4 is the forerunner of self-driving cars. At this level, cars drive autonomously for the majority of the journey. The technology for automated driving at level 4 is so advanced that the vehicle can manage highly complicated urban traffic conditions, such as unexpected works, without the driver's participation. The driver must, however, be competent to drive to recover control if required. While drivers are still required at level 4, autonomous cars at the next level can fully replace them.
Level 5. Driving autonomously
Unlike levels 3 and 4, utterly autonomous driving does not require knowledge of how to drive or a driver's license - the pedals and steering wheel are rendered obsolete. Instead, the self-driving vehicle takes over all driving functions. Everyone onboard, therefore, becomes a passenger, which offers up new mobility options for those with impairments, for example.
The level of technical demand or complexity is very high. As a result, autonomous vehicles will begin to go on the road at low speeds at first. Although they may easily dominate roads, their usage will initially be limited to specific regions of metropolitan centers.